Shifting Orbits: Decoding the Trajectory of the Indian Start-up Ecosystem
Thillai Rajan A, Srivardhini K Jha, Joffi Thomas and Rohan Chinchwadkar
216 x 280 mm
Year of Publishing
Territorial Rights
Universities Press

In the new millennium, the shape of India’s vibrant entrepreneurial economy has changed significantly to move towards one driven by technology and innovation. Today, India is one of the largest start-up and innovation hubs in the world, and the Indian start-up ecosystem has become an important contributor in our journey to become a $5 trillion economy.

Shifting Orbits chronicles the spectacular rise of the start-up landscape in India in four different sections: innovation, incubation, funding and industry perspectives.

  • The first section dives deeper into understanding how India is faring on innovation-led entrepreneurship and delineates the challenges to be overcome.
  • The next section explains how incubators provide a safe harbour for start-ups so that they can survive and flourish as viable businesses.
  • For start-ups to be able to grow and create an impact, funding is critical – the third section examines the current funding scenario and lists the policy changes essential for its growth,
  • The section on industry perspectives takes an analytical, practice-centred view of the growth of the Indian innovation ecosystem.

Taken together, Shifting Orbits is a comprehensive narrative on innovation and venturing in India and provides valuable insights on current trends and practices as well as the challenges and potential benefits for the future.

Online resources are available at

Thillai Rajan A is a Professor in the Department of Management Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Madras. He is also an associate at the Mossavar Rahmani Center for Business and Government, Harvard Kennedy School,
Harvard University.

Srivardhini K Jha is an Associate Professor in the Entrepreneurship area at the Indian Institute of Management Bangalore.

Joffi Thomas is an Associate Professor in the Marketing area at the Indian Institute of Management Kozhikode.

Rohan Chinchwadkar is an Assistant Professor (Finance) at the Shailesh J Mehta School of Management, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay.

Editorial Advisory Board
Foreword by Anand Mahindra
Foreword by K VijayRaghavan
List of Contributors
About iVEIN and the Publication Series

Section I: Innovation

1 India’s Innovation System and Start-ups: Achievements and Opportunities
Rishikesha T Krishnan, Srivardhini K Jha and Sumelika Bhattacharyya
2 Patenting by Indian Start-ups: Moving Forward
Ruchi Sharma and Madan Dhanora
3 Going Deep: The Dynamics of Founding Radically Innovative Start-Ups
Srivardhini K Jha
4 Corporate–Start-up Collaboration Programmes: Improving the Odds of Success
Atit Danak
5 Innovating for Social Impact
Sumelika Bhattacharyya, Simy Joy and Priya Nair Rajeev

Section II: Incubation
6 The Past, Present and Future of Start-up Incubation in India
Supriya Sharma, Neharika Vohra and Shailaja Shukla
7 Technology Incubation and Start-up Creation: Lessons from BETIC, IIT Bombay
Bhallamudi Ravi
8 Virtual Incubation: Helping Indian Start-ups Grow and Scale
Kritika Murugesan
9 Building Synergies for Ensuring Venture Success: The Case of Atal Incubation Centres
Abha Rishi, Ajith Chandran and Rahul Singh
10 Nurturing the Next Gen: University Incubation in India
Rohan Chinchwadkar

Section III: Funding

11 Venture Financing in India: The Seven Trends that Defined the Decadal Trajectory
Akshay Natteri Mangadu, Neha Singh and Thillai Rajan A
12 The Wood and the Trees: The Angel Investing Landscape in India
Thillai Rajan A and Akshay Natteri Mangadu
13 More than a Century of Angel Investments: A Perspective
N Ramakrishnan
14 Family Offices as a Source of Start-up Funding
N Ramakrishnan
15 Venture Funding and Translational Research–based Ventures: The Case of AI, ML and Brain Science
N Dayasindhu and Krishnan Narayanan
16 Impact and Contribution of Venture Capital Funding
Akshay Natteri Mangadu and Thillai Rajan A
17 Angel and Early-Stage Funding for Ventures
Akshay Natteri Mangadu and Thillai Rajan A

Section IV: Industry Perspectives
18 Driving Innovations, Leveraging Technology in a Turbulent Environment
Joffi Thomas and Dinesh Tiwari
19 AgriTech: Triggering Technology-Enabled Transformation
Rajesh Ranjan
20 Indian EdTech: Revolutionising Learning
Arjun Mohan
21 FinTech: The Leap Ahead
Qambar Abidi
22 HealthTech: Shifting Gears
Sameer Wagle

1. Amitabh Kant releases book on Indian start-up ecosystem |, 24 July 2021
2. IPOs will drive India’s start-up revolution: NITI Aayog CEO Amitabh Kant at book launch (IIM Bangalore) |, 24 July 2021.
3. Startup IPOs are instances of truly Atmanirbhar capital: Amitabh Kant | Times of India, 23 July 2021.
4. Indian tech ecosystem has come a long way: Amitabh Kant | Hindu Business Line, 25 July 2021.
5. Amitabh Kant tweets about Shifting Orbits | 23 July, 2021
Innovation, investment, impact: A deep dive into India’s startup ecosystem | published in the YourStory Website, 30 September 2021.
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